Tormos, R., Vauclair, M., Dobewall. H., Akaliyski, P., and Fairbrother, M. "The Evolution of Moral Beliefs across Three Decades. Different Pathways for Universal and Culture-Specific Moralities"

This research delves into the moral universalism and relativism debate. We show that the cross-national trends in moral attitudes depend on the moral issues investigated. As research material, we use the items from the Morally Debatable Behaviors Scale (MDBS) fielded in the World Value Survey and the European Value Survey (1981-2014). Applying dynamic comparative multilevel models, we find that attitudes towards (1) dishonest–illegal issues and (2) personal–sexual matters evolve differently over time following a predictable pattern across countries. Consistent with evolutionary theory, attitudes towards dishonest–illegal issues are more stable over time in most countries (except for the Global South), whereas attitudes towards personal–sexual issues undergo deeper transformations in tune with modernization’s value theory. Nations that enjoyed more economic prosperity also experienced higher levels of tolerance in the personal-sexual moral domain.


Tormos, R., and Rodon, T. "Openness to Secession. An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Support for Secession in Catalonia, 1991-2019"

Support for secession in Catalonia has increased substantially in recent years. But what role has age, period and cohort factors played in such an increase? Making use of a dataset of repeated cross-sectional surveys that span over 29 years (1991- 2019), we apply logistic cross-classified random effects models to quantify the contribution of each component. We show that, although there is an underlying cohort pattern by which younger generations are more favourable to secession, period effects are the main drivers of the evolution of Catalan secessionism. In recent years, all cohorts have changed their mind considerably about their preferred constitutional arrangement in response to contextual political events. Replicating the models in each national identity subgroup shows that period effects are stronger when the Catalan identity is also stronger. However, dual identifiers also played a key role in enlarging the aggregate level of support for independence. In addition, cohort effects following the same pattern are ubiquitous across identity groups. Finally, the consequences of future cohort replacement effects for secessionist attitudes are examined.

Verge, T, and Tormos, R. "Shaping Support for Public Policies: Legitimacy Cues and Question Wording Effects in the Case of Gender Quotas"

Public policies require citizens’ support not only for their approval but also for their successful implementation. Gender quotas are an exemplary case of a divisive policy whose enactment does not automatically dissolve opposition. This article examines how support for gender quotas can be shaped through legitimacy cues and question wording. The empirical analysis builds on two experiments embedded in a representative survey fielded in Spain, where gender quotas in politics and private businesses were introduced a decade ago. Our results show that priming the legal framework yields positive effects on support for electoral quotas, whilst the endorsement of gender balance in corporate boards increases when the wording of the question does not mention the word quotas.

Muñoz, J., and Tormos, R. "Social Choice and the Self-Determination Debate: Evaluating Alternative Methods for Preference Aggregation in Catalonia"

Galais, C., and Tormos, R. "Parenting Styles and Conception of Good Citizen"

Rudnev, M., and Tormos, R. "Personality Traits and Human Values"

Sortheix, F., and Tormos, R. "Personal Economic Grievances and their Implications for Values"